University of California, Berkeley
College of Engineering
Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences Department
For a high-resolution vector-graphics file of the above poster, click here => Fall 2013 C145L Poster
The URL for this EECS145L web site is
http://www.EECS.Berkeley.edu/~derenzo/145L.html (last update 2013.03.20)
For Macintosh OS9, click on HeartModel.OS9.sit and Stuffit Expander should automatically extract the program and place it on your desktop
For Macintosh OSX, click on HeartModel (Mac OSX)
For Windows, save HeartModel.exe
Instructor: Stephen E. Derenzo, Derenzo@eecs 486-4097
Lecture: Mon, Wed 1:00-2:00 3108 Etcheverry Hall
Office hours: Mon, 2:10-3:00; Wed 12:10-1:00 265M Cory
Teaching Laboratory 125 Cory Hall
Tue 9:30-12:30; Thu 12:30-3:30
Teaching Associate: Michael Eggleston, firstname.lastname@example.org
Three hours laboratory, two hours lecture per week. 3 units
Final Exam group 12: Wed Dec 18 7-10 pm
(University policy does not allow students to register in different courses in the same exam group)
EECS145L provides practical design and laboratory experience with the electronic transducers (sensors and actuators) commonly used to measure and control temperature, displacement, force, sound, light, etc. Operational amplifiers, instrumentation amplifiers, and analog filtering are used to amplify and process the sensor signals before recording. A digital oscilloscope is used for observing waveforms and measuring voltages. Ag(AgCl) skin electrodes are used to record signals from the heart, skeletal muscles, and eyes. Applications include laboratory instrumentation, data acquisition, process control, and biomedical electronics.
Each lab station has a PC with the Windows operating system and software and digital oscilloscope for sampling, storage, display, and printout of data values and plots. Computer programming is not required in this course.
In performing the laboratory exercises, students will work in groups of 2. Please stay with the same lab partner throughout the semester. Two weeks after the scheduled date of the laboratory exercise, one lab partner will turn in to the TA a full lab report and the other lab partner will turn in to the TA only the answers to the question section. This will alternate so that by the end of the semester each lab partner will have written complete reports for five laboratory exercises and the answers to the question sections for the other five lab reports. (The lowest full lab report grade and the lowest question section grade will be dropped.) The full lab reports are expected to be complete technical reports understandable to an EECS upper division student who has not taken the course.
The two midterm exams and the final exam will not only cover the principles and techniques covered in the laboratory exercises and the class lectures, but will also pose problems that require new designs involving those principles and techniques.
(these topics are covered in EECS 40)
Lab 4: Operational amplifier circuits, operation of the digital oscilloscope, effect of negative feedback, measurement of gain vs. frequency
Lab 5: Instrumentation amplifiers for high input impedance, high-gain, differential amplification. Sources of noise, gain vs. frequency, common mode rejection ratio
Lab 6: Op-Amp filter circuits: one pole low pass, Butterworth two pole low pass, one pole high pass, notch
Lab 7: Introduction to A/D and D/A conversion (limited to students who have not taken and do not plan to take 145M)
Lab 11: Measuring angular position, using the microcomputer for sampling and display
Lab 12: Measuring temperature, thermocouple, thermistor bridge, dynamic response
Lab 13: Measuring strain and force, foil strain gauges, one and four element bridges
Lab 14: Measuring light with a PIN photodiode, optical transmission using light emitting diodes to determine the concentration of a colored solution
Lab 15: Using a thermoelectric heat pump. Measuring thermal efficiency and heat transfer.
Lab 16: Electrodes and ionic media, impedance vs. frequency, contact potential, bare metal vs. Ag(AgCl) electrodes (not in operation)
Lab 17: The human heart: measurement of the electrocardiogram (ECG), phonocardiogram, and blood pressure at rest and after light exercise (under physician supervision).
Lab 18: Recording of the electromyogram (EMG) from the fore-arm muscles, using an isolation amplifier, full wave rectifier, and low-pass filtering. Correlation of this signal with the force produced by the corresponding fingers.
Lab 19: Using the electrooculogram (EOG) to measure eye movement. Smooth pursuit, saccades.
Lab 25: Temperature Control (Analog)- Temperature sensing using a thermistor bridge and an instrumentation amplifier. Temperature control using a difference amplifier, a power amplifier, and a ceramic resistor oven.
Ultrasonic Rangefinder Lab: Test an ultrasonic rangefinder and explore its ability to measure the speed and attenuation of sound in air. Determine effective range, accuracy, and beam pattern.
Lectures: 3108 Etcheverry Hall
Mon, Wed 1-2 pm
Laboratory sessions: 125 Cory Hall
Tue 9:30-12:30; 12:30-3:30
TA and lab report grader: TBD
Sep 2 Mon LABOR DAY HOLIDAY
Sep 4 Wed Course Organization
Sep 9 Mon Ideal and realistic op-amps
Sep 11 Wed Op-amp circuits - negative feedback gain equations
Lab 4 (Op-amps)
Sep 16 Mon Instrumentation Amplifiers
Sep 18 Wed Noise Sources, Shielding, Grounding
Lab 5 (Instrumentation amps)
Sep 23 Mon Analog Filtering, Op-Amp Filter Circuits
Sep 24 Wed Angle and Position Sensors
Lab 6 (Analog filtering) [Lab 4 due]
Sep 30 Mon Data Acquisition with the Pentium PC (TA)
Oct 2 Wed Review lecture
Lab 11 (Measuring angle) [Lab 5 due]
Oct 7 Mon Review lecture
Oct 9 Wed MIDTERM #1
Make-up Labs [study for Midterm, no labs due]
Oct 14 Mon A/D and D/A Conversion
Oct 16 Tue Temperature Measurement
Lab 12 (Measuring temperature)* [Lab 6 due]
á students who can, please bring ice
Oct 21 Mon Strain Sensors
Oct 23 Wed Measuring Force and Pressure
Lab 13 (Measuring force) [Lab 11 due]
Oct 28 Mon Measuring Light; Light Sensors and Actuators
Oct 30 Wed Electrical safety; Ionic Potentials and Electrodes
Lab 14 (Measuring light) [Lab 12 due]
Nov 4 Mon EMG Signal Processing and Prosthetic Devices
Nov 6 Wed Thermoelectric Heat Pump
Lab 15 (Peltier) or 18 (EMG) [Lab 13 due]
Nov 11 Mon VETERANS DAY HOLIDAY
Nov 13 Wed Cardiac Signals (ECG, blood press, phonocardiogram)
Lab 10 (Heart) or 25 (Temp control) or C14 (Light control) [Lab 14 due]
Nov 18 Mon Review Lecture
Nov 20 Wed MIDTERM #2
Make-up Labs [study for Midterm, no labs due]
Nov 25 Mon Control Systems
Nov 27 Wed EOG Signals
Make-up Labs [Lab 15 or 17 due]
(Nov 24 and 25 Thu and Fri THANKSGIVING DAY HOLIDAY)
Dec 2 Mon Production and Sensing of Ionizing Radiation
Dec 4 Wed Engineering Design Issues
Lab 19 (EOG) or 25 (Temp control) [Lab 18 or C14 due]
Dec 9 Mon Review for Final (Selected problems solved)
Dec 11 Wed Last lecture (Review of topics covered)
Labs Closed after Dec 13 [Lab 19 or 25 due**]
** make arrangements to give to TA
Stephen E. Derenzo, Practical Interfacing for the Laboratory, Cambridge University Press edition, 2003. Purchase from ASUC or Amazon.com.
Data sheets from focus.ti.com (Texas Instruments)
Burr Brown 3656 isolation amplifier (look for technical documents as .pdf files)
Data sheets from www.national.com (National Semiconductor)
LF356 monolithic JFET operational amplifier
LF198 sample-and-hold amplifier
LM12 80-W op amp
Data sheets from www.analog.com (Analog Devices)
AD622 instrumentation amplifier
AD590 temperature transducer
Data sheets from www.hamamatsu.com (Hamamatsu Photonics)
S3071 PIN photodiode
C5658 avalanche photodiode module
Gauge catalog from www.blh.com (select "download gauge") (Vishay BLH)
Description of all strain gauge and resistor series
Technical data of all strain gauge and resistor series
Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill, The Art of Electronics, Cambridge University Press, Second Edition, 1989.
Glenn M. Glasford, Analog Electronic Circuits, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1986
Robert G. Irvine, Operational Amplifier Characteristics and Applications, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1981
George C. Barney, Intelligent Instrumentation, Prentice-Hall, 1985 or 1988
At ASUC bookstore
D.H. Sheingold, Transducer Interfacing Handbook, Analog Devices, Norwood, MA, 1981.
At ASUC bookstore.
Cobbold, Transducers for Biomedical Measurements, John Wiley & Sons, 1974
At ASUC Bookstore- required for EECS 145A
M. Rudd, Basic Concepts of Cardiovascular Physiology, Hewlett-Packard Co., Waltham MA (out of print).
40% - Four full written lab reports (including question section) from each student, due according to the course schedule on the last page (five are assigned- lowest grade dropped). Lab partners will write full reports for alternate laboratory exercises.
10% - Four short written lab reports (question section only) from each student, due according to the course schedule on the last page (five are assigned- lowest grade dropped). Lab partners will write short reports for alternate laboratory exercises.
10% - Laboratory attendance and participation (as observed by TA)
20% - Two midterm written examinations (closed book, in class)
20% - Final written examination (closed book, exam group 22)
Standards for laboratory participation grades are as follows (max 100):
100 for excellent effort beyond the call of duty
90 for putting in the required time and affort
80 for attending but doing significantly less than a fair share of the lab work
<80 as fits the situation
For both full and short reports, three points will be deducted for each school day late (no deductions for weekends or holidays). No credit for lab reports turned after the graded reports have been handed back to the students (usually 1-2 weeks after they are due).
The two midterm exams and the final exam include design problems that require the student to apply the principles learned in the laboratory exercises and lectures to new design situations.
Final letter grades are determined from the total course scores of the undergraduate students only. Then the graduate student letter grades are determined using the same standard. Otherwise, the graduate students taking the course (who generally have better numerical scores) would cause all students to get lower letter grades.
Final letter grades are determined using the following guidelines:
1) Undergraduate grade average 2.9.
2) Each letter grade (A, A-, B+, B, B-, etc.) is assigned to approximately equal numerical bands of total course scores.
Return to table of contents
Both full and short lab reports are to be prepared on 8.5 x 11 inch paper stapled together, including the raw data (or a copy). It is not necessary to use a bound notebook to record your lab data or write your lab report. For each laboratory exercise, one lab partner will prepare a full written lab report (including the question section) and the other lab partner will prepare a short written lab report (question section only). This pattern will alternate for each laboratory exercise so that each student will prepare five full written lab reports their lab partner will prepare five different full lab reports.
Throughout your professional career you will be required to write internal reports, papers for research journals, proposals, grant applications, etc. To prepare you for these tasks, one of the purposes of this course to improve your skills in the area of written technical communication.
On the first page of your report, write (1) your name (identified as the author), (2) lab section day and time, (3) lab station number, and (4) the name of your lab partner. Three points will be deducted if this information is not present. To make your report easier to grade, number all parts tro correspond to the numbering scheme in the text.
Each full laboratory report will be graded on the basis of 100 points and each short laboratory report will be graded on the basis of 25 points. If you want to know how many points were deducted from each section, also include a table with entries for set-up, data and program, analysis, discussion, questions, clarity, and total grade. At the end of the semester, the lowest full lab report and short lab report grades will be dropped.
Following are the major lab report sections (100 points total):
Lateness: Three points deducted for each school day late. Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays do not count.
Set-up: A simple block diagram of the experimental setup you used with all essential equipment labeled. A photocopy of the appropriate diagrams from the course book could be included, with any modifications that you made to do the lab exercise.
Procedure and Data Summary: A clear presentation of your data and how you took it for each procedure section, with uncertainties, as you would find in a published technical journal article. (The "Raw Data" section below would be complete, but need not be as clear or as organized.) Any special or unusual experimental circumstances should be mentioned. This section should contain all the information specified in the textbook and required for the Analysis section without requiring reference to the "Raw Data" section.
Analysis: A clear description of how you analyzed the data and the results of your analysis. Include typical error propagation from raw measurements to analyzed quantities. In almost all cases the description will refer to tables and graphs. Remember to label the axes of all graphs with numbers and units, and provide a short title for each graph. Whenever possible, compare the analyzed results with numerical expectations. Reference background material, (e.g. equations from the textbook or numbers from manufacturers data sheets) as appropriate.
Discussion and Conclusions: Draw conclusions from your observations, data, and analysis. This section should total at least 500 words (1 page single space typed, 2 pages handwritten) and address the following points:
1) The principles demonstrated in each procedure section. Often this only requires stating what is obvious to you, but not necessarily obvious to a colleague reading your report who has not done the laboratory exercise.
2) Compare the results of different procedure sections (whenever appropriate)
For example, in Laboratory Exercise 4 compare the bandwidth of the gain = 100 amplifiers with the unity gain buffer amplifier.
3) Compare your observations to what you would expect. (Why did you observe what you did?) If a mathematical model is used to describe the behavior of the system, describe how well it agreed with your measurements and give possible reasons for any disagreement.
4) Discuss general situations where the principles and techniques demonstrated in the laboratory exercise could be used.
For example, in Laboratory Exercise 15, discuss how the thermoelectric heat pump might be used in push-pull temperature control.
5) Discuss the major components used in the laboratory exercise and the role each played.
6) Discuss limitations of the laboratory exercise and how they can be reduced by changing the method or the equipment. For example, in Laboratory Exercise 11, discuss how the accuracy could be improved by using a digital rotary encoder. Or in Laboratory Exercise 15, discuss how the maximum and minimum equilibrium temperatures could be changed by using thermal insulation.
Questions: (25 points) Answer all questions posed in the textbook. Any questions answered in the body of the report can be referred to by section number.
Raw Data: Notes and data taken in ink during the laboratory exercise and the source of the manually taken data for the "Data Summary" section (equivalent to a laboratory "log book"). If you make an error, draw a single line through it. Processed data presented as raw data is a misrepresentation. Special experimental circumstances should be noted on these sheets during the lab period. Include any computer printout of raw data. Include estimates of experimental uncertainties in your raw measurements.
Clarity of organization; neatness: Your finished report should be clear and understandable to your professional colleagues (in your case the average upper division EE student who has not taken 145L). Use numbered section and sub-section headings (as suggested in the 145L textbook) so that your grader can keep track of the organization. Provide a short title for each figure so the reader knows what is being presented without having to read the entire report. Although many students prepare their reports on word processors and laser printers, the same material written by hand will get the same grade, provided that it can easily be read. (If your handwriting is difficult to read, learn to print!) All computer printout should be cut to 8.5 x 11 inches and attached so that it can be read as easily as any other page.
If you want to know how many points were deducted from each section, also include a table with entries for lateness, set-up, analysis, discussion, questions, clarity, and total grade.
Photocopy your lab report before you turn it in. The typical lab report is 15 pages and the copy centers around campus charge about $0.08 per page - $1.20 is good insurance against a lost lab report. We will not excuse a lost lab report.
To turn in late lab reports, ask the instructor or the staff in 231 Cory to date and sign the lab report- then if possible, deliver it to the TA.
If you cannot get the lab exercise to work after two lab sessions, get the data from another lab group and note it in your lab report. It is better to take a small point deduction than to fall behind in your lab work.
See the following for a detailed list of required equipment and parts for each Laboratory Exercise.
1) Superstrip circuit boards mounted on a metal plate- four binding posts are provided: ground (connected to metal plate), +5 V, +12 V, -12 V
Lab Exercise: 4 5 6 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 25
LF356 Op Amp 3 5 2 3
AD625 or LH0036 1 1 1 2
1N914 diode 2
Lab Exercise: 4 5 6 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 25
200 ohm 3
10 kohm 2
20 kohm 3 1 1 1 5 1
100 kohm 1 1 1 2
Resistors (10% carbon)
Lab Exercise: 4 5 6 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 25
51 ohm 1
100 ohm 1 1
330 ohm 1
510 ohm 1 1 1 1
1 kohm 6 2 2
2.4 kohm 3 2
3.3 kohm 1 1 1 2
5.1 kohm 1 1 3 2
10 kohm 2 7 2 3
20 kohm 1 2
33 kohm 1 1 1 2
100 kohm 3 1 1
1 Mohm 2 4 2 2
2 Mohm 2
10 Mohm 1
Lab Exercise: 4 5 6 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 25
10 uF electrolytic* 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 5
1 uF electrolytic 1
3.3 uF electrolytic 1
0.1 uF CK05** 6 2 10 2 2 4 6 4
150 pF 2
1200 pF 2 1
2700 pF 1
0.011 uF 1
0.015 uF 2
0.022 uF 1
*Power filtering- mount on binding posts of your circuit board
**Power filtering- place between Vcc and ground at all integrated circuit chips
The instructions below describe how to use LabVIEW Signal Express to transfer data from the digital oscilloscope to the computer and print waveforms.
1) Connect the oscilloscope to the signal generator, turn both on (Signal Express needs a waveform to start)
2) Find Signal Express on desktop or start menu under Programs/National Instruments/LabVIEW Signal Express/LabVIEW Signal Express
3)With the oscilloscope providing a signal, launch Signal Express
4) If the request for license appears, press continue, and then bypass the launch splash screen.
5) Add Step
- Select Acquire Signal
- IVI Acquire
- IVI Scope Acquire
- Once the Step Setup Tab appears select the appropriate entry for the oscilloscope from the pulldown menu labeled IVI Session Name and waiting for equipment initializing
- Make sure that both analog channels are enabled and have appropriate parameters
6) Select the Data view (the black screen)
Drag the signals onto the Data View
Drag both the signals from the IVI Scope Acquire Step on the left onto the black screen
7) Run one step
8) For printing it is easier to view it with white background so you can just drag the signals onto the right most tab labeled Project Documentation
9) Modify and edit the data
- Right click on the display to pull down the menu:
View As for display XY format
Visible for edit legend, cursors
10) You can print the Data View or the Project Documentation by File/Print command
The following files can be read with the Adobe Acrobat Reader, which can be downloaded free from the Adobe Systems Incorporated Home Page
145L equation sheet (handed out before exams)
EECS 20: INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING. Hands-on introduction to discrete real-time systems for audio and image processing. Sinusoids, filtering, use of superposition, sampling and quantization artifacts. Workstation simulation of tone generation and detection, voice and video processing, and image processing. Real-time processing of tones, audio, and music using programmable digital signal processors.
EECS 40: INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. Passive circuit analysis, analog building blocks and analog systems, digital building blocks and digital systems, semiconductor devices, electronic circuits (PREREQUISITE FOR 145L).
EECS 43: INTRODUCTORY ELECTRONICS LAB. Equipment and laboratory technique using the oscilloscope, power supplies, multimeter, curve tracer, spectrum analyzer, and LCR bridge.
EECS 104: LINEAR AND NONLINEAR CIRCUITS. Kirchhoff's Laws. Telegen's theorem. Circuit elements (including op amps). Simple nonlinear circuits. General network analysis. Sinusoidal steady-state analysis. Laplace transform. Convolution. Network theorems. Natural frequencies. Stability. Network functions: poles and zeros; magnitude and phase. Two-ports. Filter approximation, synthesis, sensitivity.
EECS 105: ANALOG DEVICES. Physics and modeling of semiconductor devices, including diodes, MOSFETs, and bipolar transistors. Digital circuit concepts and logic gates are introduced. MOS and bipolar small-signal amplifiers are discussed in depth, including differential pairs, current-source biasing, and two-stage operational amplifiers. Frequency response and the analysis of feedback are also covered.
ME 135: DESIGN OF MICROPROCESSOR-BASED MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. Use of microprocessors to control machine activities, acquire and analyze data, and interact with operators. The architecture of microprocessors is related to problems in mechanical systems through study of systems, including electro-mechanical components, thermal components, and a variety of instruments. Laboratory exercises lead through studies of different levels of software.
EECS 125: INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTICS. An introduction to the kinematics, dynamics, and control of robot manipulators, robotic vision, sensing and the programming of robots. Proximity, tactile, and force sensing.
EECS 128: FEEDBACK CONTROL. Analysis and synthesis of continuous and sampled-data linear feedback control systems. Advantages of feedback. Design by root locus, frequency response, and state space methods, with a comparison of techniques. Case studies.
EECS 140: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. Frequency response of cascaded amplifiers, dominant-pole techniques, gain-bandwidth exchange. Feedback amplifiers, 2-port formulation, source, load and feedback loading, broad-band amplifiers, feedback regulators. Switched-capacitor filters. Electrical noise and minimum detectable signals.
EECS 145A: SENSORS, ACTUATORS AND ELECTRODES (seldom offered). Fundamental principles related to the sources, measurements and significances of physiological parameters and variables. Covers a wide variety of transducers for light, heat, position, pressure, acceleration, radiation, ionic concentration and diffusion, medical imaging, etc. Mathematical modeling, signal to noise considerations.
EECS 145B: COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE. Use of digital computers for data analysis, including statistical significance of population differences, least squares and Chi squared fitting, Fast Fourier Transforms, Image theory, Computed Tomography (X-ray, SPECT, PET, and NMR). Field trips to medical research centers.
EECS 145M (SPRING) MICROCOMPUTER INTERFACING LABORATORY. Laboratory Exercises using the programming language C, a parallel interface port, digital timers, Instrumentation amplifiers, analog filters, S/H amplifiers, A/D and D/A converters for data processing and acquisition, Fast Fourier Transforms, least squares fitting, display, and control.
EECS 192: MECHATRONC DESIGN LABORATORY. Design project course. Small teams of students design and build a small-scale system with sensors, actuators, and intelligence, such as a mobile robot.
ENGINEERING 190: TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION. Principles of technical communication. Organizing material; developing a clear, economical style; using proper formats and rhetorical strategies. Practice in oral presentations to technical and non-technical audiences.