Electrical Engineering
      and Computer Sciences

Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences


UC Berkeley


2010 Research Summary

Center for Scalable and Integrated NAnoManufacturing (SINAM)

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Eli Yablonovitch, Xiang Zhang1, Tsu-Chin Tsao2, Cheng Sun3, Fritz Prinz4, Heather Maynard5, Arunava Majumdar6, Robert Hocken7, Dean Ho8, Chih-Ming Ho9, Thomas Hahn10, Costas Grigoropoulos11, Jean M. J. Frechet12, David Dornfeld13, Yong Chen14, Gang Chen15 and David Bogy16

National Science Foundation

The goal of SINAM is to develop a 3D nano-manufacturing platform to achieve the 3D heterogeneous integration of sensing, computing, actuation and communication on a single chip. SINAM's research strategy is to fuse the top-down and bottom-up manufacturing approaches by integrating a highly multidisciplinary team effort at system level. Driven by strong system focus, SINAM develops system engineering strategies to scale up the nano-manufacturing technologies. The research program is structured through three integrated research groups. IRG I focuses on top-down nano-lithography aiming toward critical resolution of 1-50 nm. IRG II explores the novel hybrid approaches, in combining the top-down and bottom-up technologies to achieve massively parallel integration of heterogeneous nanoscale components into higher-order structures and devices. IRG 3 develops system engineering strategies to scale up the technologies developed in IRG I&II, and in product design and development. As part of IRG I, our goal for Phase II will be to demonstrate high-speed nanolithography and complete its integration with the Multi-scale Alignment and Positioning Systems (MAPS) test-bed being developed by IRG III. Writing features with a pitch less than 50 nm requires focusing light to extremely small scales, on the order of a few hundered square nanometers. Although this level of confinement cannot be achieved through conventional optics, it is well within the reach of metal optics (i.e. plasmonics). In metal optics one deals exclusively with AC currents oscillating very rapidly on metal surfaces. By creating stacks of metals and dielectrics and adjusting their thicknesses, it is possible to attain so-called surface plasmon modes with effective wavelengths that are orders of magnitude smaller than those available in the media comprising the stack alone. Amazingly, surface plasmons at visible frequencies can have wavelengths approaching 1 nm, allowing vast improvements in the resolution of lithography based manufacturing tools toward the critical 1-50 nm range. The continued development of photo-resist materials for integration with plasmonic lithography will also be an important task. IRG I will establish a broader partnership with government agencies, national laboratories and industries to identify emerging areas in nanomanufacturing and promote the transfer of SINAM research to immediate industrial application. As an example, Heat Assist Magnetic Recording (HAMR) in computer hard-drive industry requires efficient focusing of optical energy into a 30 nm area and the plasmonic focusing lens, developed by SINAM research, offers a viable solution. With the ability to efficiently focus optical energy down to the single digit nanometer scale, plasmonic focusing lenses can be used to enable many non-linear optical devices.

1UC Berkeley Mechanical Engineering Department
2UCLA Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
3Northwestern University Mechanical Engineering Department
4Stanford University Mechanical Engineering Department
5UCLA Chemistry and Biochemistry Department
6UCLA Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
7UNCC Mechanical Engineering Department
8Northwestern University Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering Departments
9UCLA Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
10UCLA Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
11UC Berkeley Mechanical Engineering Department
12UC Berkeley Chemistry Department
13UC Berkeley Mechanical Engineering Department
14UCLA Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
15MIT Mechanical Engineering Department
16UC Berkeley Mechanical Engineering Department