Electrical Engineering
      and Computer Sciences

Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

UC Berkeley

Route Flap Damping Exacerbates Internet Routing Convergence

Zhuoqing Morley Mao, Ramesh Govindan, George Varghese and Randy H. Katz

EECS Department
University of California, Berkeley
Technical Report No. UCB/CSD-02-1189
June 2002

Route flap damping is considered to be a widely deployed mechanism in core routers that limits the widespread propagation of unstable BGP routing information. Originally designed to suppress route changes caused by link flaps, flap damping attempts to distinguish persistently unstable routes from routes that occasionally fail. It is considered to be a major contributor to the stability of the Internet routing system.

We show in this paper that, surprisingly, route flap damping can significantly exacerbate the convergence times of relatively stable routes. For example, a route to a prefix that is withdrawn exactly once and re-announced can be suppressed for up to an hour (using the current RIPE recommended damping parameters). We show that such abnormal behavior fundamentally arises from the interaction of flap damping with BGP path exploration during route withdrawal. We study this interaction using a simple analytical model and understand the impact of various BGP parameters on its occurrence using simulations. Finally, we outline a preliminary proposal to modify route flap damping scheme that removes the undesired interaction in all the topologies we studied.


BibTeX citation:

@techreport{Mao:CSD-02-1189,
    Author = {Mao, Zhuoqing Morley and Govindan, Ramesh and Varghese, George and Katz, Randy H.},
    Title = {Route Flap Damping Exacerbates Internet Routing Convergence},
    Institution = {EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley},
    Year = {2002},
    Month = {Jun},
    URL = {http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2002/6197.html},
    Number = {UCB/CSD-02-1189},
    Abstract = {Route flap damping is considered to be a widely deployed mechanism in core routers that limits the widespread propagation of unstable BGP routing information. Originally designed to suppress route changes caused by link flaps, flap damping attempts to distinguish persistently unstable routes from routes that occasionally fail. It is considered to be a major contributor to the stability of the Internet routing system.  <p>  We show in this paper that, surprisingly, route flap damping can significantly exacerbate the convergence times of relatively stable routes. For example, a route to a prefix that is withdrawn exactly once and re-announced can be suppressed for up to an hour (using the current RIPE recommended damping parameters). We show that such abnormal behavior fundamentally arises from the interaction of flap damping with BGP path exploration during route withdrawal. We study this interaction using a simple analytical model and understand the impact of various BGP parameters on its occurrence using simulations. Finally, we outline a preliminary proposal to modify route flap damping scheme that removes the undesired interaction in all the topologies we studied.}
}

EndNote citation:

%0 Report
%A Mao, Zhuoqing Morley
%A Govindan, Ramesh
%A Varghese, George
%A Katz, Randy H.
%T Route Flap Damping Exacerbates Internet Routing Convergence
%I EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley
%D 2002
%@ UCB/CSD-02-1189
%U http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2002/6197.html
%F Mao:CSD-02-1189