Electrical Engineering
      and Computer Sciences

Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

UC Berkeley

TEMPEST Users' Guide Version 4.0

A. Wong

EECS Department
University of California, Berkeley
Technical Report No. UCB/ERL M95/14
1995

http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1995/ERL-95-14.pdf

The acronym TEMPEST stands for "Time-domain Electromagnetic Massively Parallel Evaluation of Scattering from Topography." The computer program solves Maxwell's equations using a time-domain finite-difference algorithm, where the electric and magnetic field nodes are spatially and temporally staggered over a three-dimensional topography of interest. Version 3.0 takes advantage of the inherent parallel nature of electromagnetic wave propagation and is implemented on the computer architecture connection machine 5 (CM-5). Due to the limited availability of the CM-5, version 4.0 is implemented on any single-processor computer architecture such as a work station or even a person computer. The simulation domain may represent periodic or symmetric topography. The algorithm is capable of simulating problems such as scattering from asymmetrical alignment marks, transmission through phase-shifting masks, effects of line-edge profiles in metrology as well as dynamic bleaching of photoresist over arbitrary non-planar, inhomogeneous wafer topographies. Illumination is assumed to be monochromatic, with the electric field linearly polarized in any user-specified direction. The incident angle can take on discrete values depending on the illumination wavelength and the dimension of the simulation domain. Illumination is assumed to be coherent and can consist of any intensity profile such as that calculated from SPLAT. The steady-state electric fields as well as the magnitudes and phases of diffraction harmonics are found. The photosensitizer concentration is calculated if a layer of photoresist is present. The matrix containing this concentration information can be used in other simulation programs such as SAMPLE for simulation of resist development. Information on the diffraction harmonics is used to form optical image profiles in SPLAT. Imaging can be done on the scattered fields (for example, reflected light from alignment marks) or the transmitted fields (for example, light passing through a phase-shift mask). TEMPEST parses topography information from an input file which can be checked for correctness. The input geometry is then simulated until the electromagnetic field reaches steady-state or, in the case of non-convergence, the simulation domain is excited for a user chosen number of wave cycles. Information on the simulation parameters as well as the diffraction harmonics are written to an output file. Optical image profiles based on the diffraction harmonics can be generated by the simulation program SPLAT. Line plots, contour plots, and/or density plots of the field amplitude, steady-state field, transient field, refractive index and photo active compound (PAC) concentration in any region of the simulation domain can be generated using the plotting package PLOTMTV.


BibTeX citation:

@techreport{Wong:M95/14,
    Author = {Wong, A.},
    Title = {TEMPEST Users' Guide Version 4.0},
    Institution = {EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley},
    Year = {1995},
    URL = {http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1995/2730.html},
    Number = {UCB/ERL M95/14},
    Abstract = {The acronym TEMPEST stands for "Time-domain Electromagnetic
Massively Parallel Evaluation of Scattering from Topography." The
computer program solves Maxwell's equations using a time-domain
finite-difference algorithm, where the electric and magnetic field
nodes are spatially and temporally staggered over a three-dimensional
topography of interest. Version 3.0 takes advantage of the
inherent parallel nature of electromagnetic wave propagation and
is implemented on the computer architecture connection machine 5
(CM-5). Due to the limited availability of the CM-5, version 4.0
is implemented on any single-processor computer architecture such
as a work station or even a person computer. The simulation domain
may represent periodic or symmetric topography. The algorithm is
capable of simulating problems such as scattering from asymmetrical
alignment marks, transmission through phase-shifting masks, 
effects of line-edge profiles in metrology as well as dynamic
bleaching of photoresist over arbitrary non-planar, inhomogeneous
wafer topographies.

Illumination is assumed to be monochromatic, with the electric field
linearly polarized in any user-specified direction. The incident
angle can take on discrete values depending on the illumination 
wavelength and the dimension of the simulation domain. Illumination
is assumed to be coherent and can consist of any intensity profile
such as that calculated from SPLAT. The steady-state electric fields
as well as the magnitudes and phases of diffraction harmonics are
found. The photosensitizer concentration is calculated if a layer of
photoresist is present. The matrix containing this concentration
information can be used in other simulation programs such as
SAMPLE for simulation of resist development. Information on the
diffraction harmonics is used to form optical image profiles in
SPLAT. Imaging can be done on the scattered fields (for example,
reflected light from alignment marks) or the transmitted fields
(for example, light passing through a phase-shift mask).

TEMPEST parses topography information from an input file which can
be checked for correctness. The input geometry is then simulated
until the electromagnetic field reaches steady-state or, in the
case of non-convergence, the simulation domain is excited for a
user chosen number of wave cycles.  Information on the simulation
parameters as well as the diffraction harmonics are written to
an output file. Optical image profiles based on the diffraction
harmonics can be generated by the simulation program SPLAT. Line
plots, contour plots, and/or density plots of the field amplitude,
steady-state field, transient field, refractive index and photo
active compound (PAC) concentration in any region of the simulation
domain can be generated using the plotting package PLOTMTV.}
}

EndNote citation:

%0 Report
%A Wong, A.
%T TEMPEST Users' Guide Version 4.0
%I EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley
%D 1995
%@ UCB/ERL M95/14
%U http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1995/2730.html
%F Wong:M95/14