Electrical Engineering
      and Computer Sciences

Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

UC Berkeley

Clocking and Synchronization Circuits in Multiprocessor Systems

Deog-Kyoon Jeong

EECS Department
University of California, Berkeley
Technical Report No. UCB/CSD-89-505
April 1989

http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1989/CSD-89-505.pdf

Microprocessors based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) concepts have demonstrated an ability to provide more computing power at a given level of integration than conventional microprocessors. The next step is multiprocessors composed of RISC Processing elements. Communication bandwidth among such microprocessors is critical in achieving efficient hardware utilization. This thesis focuses on the communication capability of VLSI circuits and presents new circuit techniques as a guide to build an interconnection network of VLSI microprocessors.

Two of the most prominent problems in a synchronous system, which most of the current computer systems are based on, have been clock skew and synchronization failure. A new concept called self-timed systems solves such problems but has not been accepted in microprocessor implementations yet because of its complex design procedure and increased overhead. With this in mind, this thesis concentrates on a system in which individual synchronous subsystems are connected asynchronously. Synchronous subsystems operate with a better control over clock skew using a phase locked loop (PLL) technique. Communication among subsystems is done asynchronously with a controlled synchronization failure rate. One advantage is that conventional VLSI design methodologies which are more efficient can still be applied.

Circuit techniques for PLL-based clock generation are described along with stability criteria. The main objective of the circuit is to realize a zero delay buffer. Experimental results show the feasibility of such circuits in VLSI. Synchronizer circuit configurations in both bipolar and MOS technology that best utilize each device, or overcome the technology limit using a bandwidth doubling technique are shown. Interface techniques including handshake mechanisms in such a system are also described.

These techniques are applied in designing a memory management unit and cache controller (MMU/CC) for a multiprocessor workstation, SPUR. A SPUR workstation is an example of a synchronous subsystems cluster with independent clocks. The MMU/CC operates between a CPU and a synchronous bus that has an independent clock frequency. The interface and communication aspect of the overall system are revealed through the description of the MMU/CC. The VLSI chip is implemented in 1.6 um CMOS technology with 68,000 transistors.

Advisor: David A. Hodges


BibTeX citation:

@phdthesis{Jeong:CSD-89-505,
    Author = {Jeong, Deog-Kyoon},
    Title = {Clocking and Synchronization Circuits in Multiprocessor Systems},
    School = {EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley},
    Year = {1989},
    Month = {Apr},
    URL = {http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1989/6159.html},
    Number = {UCB/CSD-89-505},
    Abstract = {Microprocessors based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) concepts have demonstrated an ability to provide more computing power at a given level of integration than conventional microprocessors. The next step is multiprocessors composed of RISC Processing elements. Communication bandwidth among such microprocessors is critical in achieving efficient hardware utilization. This thesis focuses on the communication capability of VLSI circuits and presents new circuit techniques as a guide to build an interconnection network of VLSI microprocessors. <p>Two of the most prominent problems in a synchronous system, which most of the current computer systems are based on, have been clock skew and synchronization failure. A new concept called self-timed systems solves such problems but has not been accepted in microprocessor implementations yet because of its complex design procedure and increased overhead. With this in mind, this thesis concentrates on a system in which individual synchronous subsystems are connected asynchronously. Synchronous subsystems operate with a better control over clock skew using a phase locked loop (PLL) technique. Communication among subsystems is done asynchronously with a controlled synchronization failure rate. One advantage is that conventional VLSI design methodologies which are more efficient can still be applied.   <p>Circuit techniques for PLL-based clock generation are described along with stability criteria. The main objective of the circuit is to realize a zero delay buffer. Experimental results show the feasibility of such circuits in VLSI. Synchronizer circuit configurations in both bipolar and MOS technology that best utilize each device, or overcome the technology limit using a bandwidth doubling technique are shown. Interface techniques including handshake mechanisms in such a system are also described.   <p>These techniques are applied in designing a memory management unit and cache controller (MMU/CC) for a multiprocessor workstation, SPUR. A SPUR workstation is an example of a synchronous subsystems cluster with independent clocks. The MMU/CC operates between a CPU and a synchronous bus that has an independent clock frequency. The interface and communication aspect of the overall system are revealed through the description of the MMU/CC. The VLSI chip is implemented in 1.6 um CMOS technology with 68,000 transistors.}
}

EndNote citation:

%0 Thesis
%A Jeong, Deog-Kyoon
%T Clocking and Synchronization Circuits in Multiprocessor Systems
%I EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley
%D 1989
%@ UCB/CSD-89-505
%U http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1989/6159.html
%F Jeong:CSD-89-505