# SPICE2: A Computer Program to Simulate Semiconductor Circuits

### Laurence W. Nagel

###
EECS Department

University of California, Berkeley

Technical Report No. UCB/ERL M520

1975

### http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1975/ERL-520.pdf

The size and complexity of present integrated circuits has increased to the point where computer aids are virtually indispensable. A circuit simulation program that characterizes the electrical performance of a circuit is one important computer aid in the circuit design process. The need for accurate and efficient circuit simulation has prompted the development of many circuit simulation programs as well as the advancement of the associated numerical methods. Two purposes are served by this thesis. First the numerical methods that are necessary ingredients of a circuit simulation program are detailed, and the implementations of these methods are described and compared. Second, the theoretical and practical aspects of the SPICE1 and SPICE2 programs are documented. SPICE is one of several circuit simulation programs that presently are used by a substantial portion of the electronics industry. The development of SPICE is due mainly to the author. The numerical methods that are employed in SPICE, of course, are the results of many researchers. This thesis begins with a functional description of the SPICE program. The presentation of the overall task of circuit simulation is subdivided into the topics of equation formulation, linear equation solution, nonlinear equation solution, and numerical integration. The bulk of this thesis is devoted to a comparison of the available methods within each of these general topics. These comparisons are based upon an evaluation of the performance of the methods for typical electronic circuit simulation problems. The numerical methods that are employed in both versions of SPICE are presented in detail. These methods are chosen according to guidelines that are presented in the introductory sections of this thesis. Different guidelines probably would result in the implementation of different methods. The widespread use of SPICE, however, indicates that the algorithms that are employed in SPICE are applicable to a wide range of practical circuit simulation problems.

BibTeX citation:

@phdthesis{Nagel:M520, Author = {Nagel, Laurence W.}, Title = {SPICE2: A Computer Program to Simulate Semiconductor Circuits}, School = {EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley}, Year = {1975}, URL = {http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1975/9602.html}, Number = {UCB/ERL M520}, Abstract = {The size and complexity of present integrated circuits has increased to the point where computer aids are virtually indispensable. A circuit simulation program that characterizes the electrical performance of a circuit is one important computer aid in the circuit design process. The need for accurate and efficient circuit simulation has prompted the development of many circuit simulation programs as well as the advancement of the associated numerical methods. Two purposes are served by this thesis. First the numerical methods that are necessary ingredients of a circuit simulation program are detailed, and the implementations of these methods are described and compared. Second, the theoretical and practical aspects of the SPICE1 and SPICE2 programs are documented. SPICE is one of several circuit simulation programs that presently are used by a substantial portion of the electronics industry. The development of SPICE is due mainly to the author. The numerical methods that are employed in SPICE, of course, are the results of many researchers. This thesis begins with a functional description of the SPICE program. The presentation of the overall task of circuit simulation is subdivided into the topics of equation formulation, linear equation solution, nonlinear equation solution, and numerical integration. The bulk of this thesis is devoted to a comparison of the available methods within each of these general topics. These comparisons are based upon an evaluation of the performance of the methods for typical electronic circuit simulation problems. The numerical methods that are employed in both versions of SPICE are presented in detail. These methods are chosen according to guidelines that are presented in the introductory sections of this thesis. Different guidelines probably would result in the implementation of different methods. The widespread use of SPICE, however, indicates that the algorithms that are employed in SPICE are applicable to a wide range of practical circuit simulation problems.} }

EndNote citation:

%0 Thesis %A Nagel, Laurence W. %T SPICE2: A Computer Program to Simulate Semiconductor Circuits %I EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley %D 1975 %@ UCB/ERL M520 %U http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/1975/9602.html %F Nagel:M520