# Faculty Publications - Pravin Varaiya

## Books

- E. H. Abed, Ed.,
*Advances in Control, Communication Networks, and Transportation Studies: In Honor of Pravin Varaiya*, Systems & Control: Foundations and Applications, Boston: Birkhäuser, 2005. [abstract] - P. Varaiya,
*Advances in Control, Communication Networks, and Transportation Studies: In Honor of Pravin Varaiya*, E. H. Abed, Ed., Systems & Control: Foundations and Applications, Boston, MA: Birkhauser, 2005. [abstract] - E. A. Lee and P. Varaiya,
*Structure and Interpretation of Signals and Systems*, Boston: Addison Wesley, 2003. [abstract] - J. Walrand and P. Varaiya,
*High-Performance Communication Networks*, 2nd ed., The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [abstract] - J. Walrand and P. Varaiya,
*High-Performance Communication Networks*, 2 ed., The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000. [abstract] - J. Walrand and P. Varaiya,
*High-Performance Communication Networks*, The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1996. [abstract] - P. R. Kumar and P. Varaiya, Eds.,
*Discrete Event Systems, Manufacturing Systems, and Communication Networks*, IMA Volumes in Mathematics and Its Applications; v. 73, New York: Springer Verlag, 1995. [abstract] - P. R. Kumar and P. Varaiya,
*Stochastic Systems: Estimation, Identification, and Adaptive control*, Prentice-Hall Information and System Sciences Series, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986. [abstract] - P. Varaiya,
*Notes on Optimization*, Van Nostrand Reinhold Notes on System Sciences, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972. [abstract]

## Book chapters or sections

- A. B. Kurzhanski and P. Varaiya, "Ellipsoidal techniques for hybrid dynamics: The reachability problem," in
*New Directions and Applications in Control Theory*, W. P. Dayawansa, A. Lindquist, and Y. Zhou, Eds., Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, Vol. 321, Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2005, pp. 193-205. - C. Chen, P. Varaiya, and J. Kwon, "An empirical assessment of traffic operations," in
*Transportation and Traffic Theory: Flow, Dynamics and Human Interaction. Proc. 16th Intl. Symp. on Transportation and Traffic Theory (ISTTT 16)*, H. S. Mahmassani, Ed., International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science, 2005, pp. 105-124.

## Articles in journals or magazines

- S. Pollin, M. Ergen, S. Coleri Ergen, B. Bougard, L. Van der Perre, I. Moerman, A. Bahai, P. Varaiya, and F. Catthoor, "Performance analysis of slotted carrier sense IEEE 802.15.4 medium access layer,"
*IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications*, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 3359-3371, Sep. 2008. - G. Gomes, R. Horowitz, A. A. Kurzhanskiy, P. Varaiya, and J. Kwon, "Behavior of the cell transmission model and effectiveness of ramp metering,"
*Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies*, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 485-513, Aug. 2008. - S. Timofeev, A. Bahai, and P. Varaiya, "Adaptive acoustic beamformer with source tracking capabilities,"
*IEEE Trans. Signal Processing*, vol. 56, no. 7, Pt. 1, pp. 2812-2820, July 2008. - A. Haoui, R. Kavaler, and P. Varaiya, "Wireless magnetic sensors for traffic surveillance,"
*Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies*, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 294-306, June 2008. - J. Kwon and P. Varaiya, "Effectiveness of California's High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) system,"
*Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies*, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 98-115, Feb. 2008. - M. Ergen and P. Varaiya, "Formulation of distributed coordination function of IEEE 802.11 for asynchronous networks: Mixed data rate and packet size,"
*IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology*, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 436-447, Jan. 2008. - J. Kwon, K. Petty, and P. Varaiya, "Probe vehicle runs or loop detectors? Effect of detector spacing and sample size on the accuracy of freeway congestion monitoring,"
*Transportation Research Record: J. Transportation Research Board*, vol. 2012, pp. 57-63, 2007. - S. Coleri Ergen and P. Varaiya, "Energy efficient routing with delay guarantee for sensor networks,"
*Wireless Networks*, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 679-690, Oct. 2007. - A. A. Kurzhanskiy and P. Varaiya, "Ellipsoidal techniques for reachability analysis of discrete-time linear systems,"
*IEEE Trans. Automatic Control*, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 26-38, Jan. 2007. - J. Kwon, M. Mauch, and P. Varaiya, "The components of congestion: Delay from incidents, special events, lane closures, weather, ramp metering gain, and excess demand,"
*Transportation Research Record: J. Transporation Research Board*, vol. 1959, pp. 84-91, 2006. - P. Varaiya and A. B. Kurzhanski, "Ellipsoidal methods for dynamics and control. Part I.,"
*J. Mathematical Sciences*, vol. 139, no. 5, pp. 6863-6901, Dec. 2006. - S. C. Ergen and P. Varaiya, "PEDAMACS: Power efficient and delay aware medium access protocol for sensor networks,"
*IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing*, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 920-930, July 2006. - A. B. Kurzhanski and P. Varaiya, "A comparison principle for equations of the Hamilton-Jacobi type in set-membership filtering,"
*Communications in Information and Systems*, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 179-192, June 2006. - R. Jain and P. Varaiya, "Simulation-based uniform value function estimates of Markov decision processes,"
*SIAM J. Control and Optimization*, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1633-1656, June 2006. - R. Jain and P. Varaiya, "Simulation-based uniform value function estimates of Markov decision processes,"
*SIAM J. Control. Optimization*, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1633-1656, June 2006. [abstract] - A. B. Kurzhanski and P. Varaiya, "A comparison principle for equations of the Hamilton-Jacobi type in set-membership filtering,"
*Communications in Information and Systems*, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 179-192, June 2006. - J. Shu and P. Varaiya, "Small pay access control via incentive alignment,"
*IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication*, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1051-1060, May 2006. [abstract] - J. Shu and P. Varaiya, "Smart pay access control via incentive alignment,"
*IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communications*, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1051-1060, May 2006. - Z. Jia and P. Varaiya, "Heuristic methods for delay constrained least cost routing using $ kappa $-shortest paths,"
*IEEE Trans. Automatic Control*, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 707-712, April 2006. - A. B. Kurzhanski and P. Varaiya, "Ellipsoidal techniques for reachability under state constraints,"
*SIAM J. Optimization and Control*, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1369-1394, April 2006. - Z. Jia and P. Varaiya, "Heuristic Methods for Delay Constrained Least Cost Routing Using k-Shortest-Paths,"
*IEEE Trans. Automatic Control*, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 707-712, April 2006. [abstract] - A. Kurzhanski and P. Varaiya, "Ellipsoidal techniques for reachability under state constraint,"
*SIAM J. Control. Optimization*, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1369-1394, April 2006. [abstract] - A. B. Kurzhanski, I. M. Mitchell, and P. Varaiya, "Optimization techniques for state-constrained control and obstacle problems,"
*J. Optimization Theory and Applications*, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 499-521, March 2006. - M. Ergen and P. Varaiya, "Throughput analysis and admission control for IEEE 802.11a,"
*Mobile Networks and Applications*, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 705-716, Oct. 2005. - A. S. Chuang, F. F. Wu, and P. Varaiya, "A game-theoretic model for generation expansion planning: Problem formulation and numerical comparisons,"
*IEEE Trans. Power Systems*, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 885-891, Nov. 2001. - R. Horowitz and P. Varaiya, "Control design of an automated highway system (Invited Paper),"
*Proc. IEEE*, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 913-925, July 2000. - A. J. Goldsmith and P. Varaiya, "Capacity of fading channels with channel side information,"
*IEEE Trans. Information Theory*, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1986-1992, Nov. 1997. - H. Chiang, F. F. Wu, and P. Varaiya, "A BCU method for direct analysis of power system transient stability,"
*IEEE Trans. Power Systems*, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1194-1208, Aug. 1994. - P. Varaiya, "Smart cars on smart roads: Problems of control,"
*IEEE Trans. Automatic Control*, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 195-207, Feb. 1993. - R. R. Weber, P. Varaiya, and J. Walrand, "Scheduling jobs with stochastically ordered processing times on parallel machines to minimize expected flowtime,"
*J. Applied Probability*, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 841-847, Sep. 1986. - P. Varaiya, J. Walrand, and C. Buyukkoc, "Extensions of the multiarmed bandit problem: The discounted case,"
*IEEE Trans. Automatic Control*, vol. AC-30, no. 5, pp. 426-439, May 1985. - J. Walrand and P. Varaiya, "Optimal causal coding-decoding problems,"
*IEEE Trans. Information Theory*, vol. IT-29, no. 6, pp. 814-820, Nov. 1983. - J. Walrand and P. Varaiya, "Flows in queueing networks: A Martingale approach,"
*Mathematics of Operations Research*, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 387-404, Aug. 1981. - J. Walrand and P. Varaiya, "Sojourn times and the overtaking condition in Jacksonian networks,"
*Advances in Applied Probability*, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1000-1018, Dec. 1980. - E. Wong, P. Varaiya, and R. Boel, "Martingales on jump processes. II: Applications,"
*SIAM J. Control*, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1021-1061, June 1975. - E. Wong, P. Varaiya, and R. Boel, "Martingales on jump processes. I: Representation results,"
*SIAM J. Control*, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 999-1021, June 1975. - P. Varaiya, "On the existence of solutions to a differential game,"
*SIAM J. Control*, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 153-162, Feb. 1967.

## Articles in conference proceedings

- S. Coogan, G. Gomes, E. Kim, M. Arcak, and P. Varaiya, "Offset optimization for a network of signalized intersections via semidefinite relaxation," in
*Proceedings of the 54th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control*, 2015, pp. 2187-2192. - P. Jeevan, S. Pollin, A. Bahai, and P. Varaiya, "Pairwise algorithm for distributed transmit beamforming," in
*Proc. 2008 IEEE Intl. Conf. on Communications (ICC '08)*, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2008, pp. 4245-4249. - S. Pollin, M. Ergen, S. Coleri Ergen, B. Bougard, F. Catthoor, A. Bahai, and P. Varaiya, "Performance analysis of slotted carrier sense IEEE 802.15.4 acknowledged uplink transmissions," in
*Proc. 2008 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conf. (WCNC '08)*, Piscataway, N: IEEE Press, 2008, pp. 1559-1564. - R. Rajagopal, X. Nguyen, S. Coleri Ergen, and P. Varaiya, "Distributed online simultaneous fault detection for multiple sensors," in
*Proc. 2008 Intl. Conf. on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2008)*, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2008, pp. 133-144. - M. Ergen and P. Varaiya, "Decomposition of energy consumption in IEEE 802.11," in
*Proc. 2007 IEEE Intl. Conf. on Communications (ICC '07)*, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2007, pp. 403-408. - M. Malboubi, A. Bahai, M. Ergen, P. Varaiya, and J. Walrand, "Unequal importance image communication over heterogeneous networks," in
*Proc. 65th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC '07-Spring)*, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2007, pp. 629-633. - S. Timofeev, A. Bahai, and P. Varaiya, "Wideband adaptive beamforming system for speech recording," in
*Proc. 2007 IEEE Intl. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP '07)*, Vol. 2, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2007, pp. 989-992. - A. A. Kurzhanskiy and P. Varaiya, "Ellipsoidal Toolbox (ET)," in
*Proc. 45th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control (ICDC 2006)*, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2006, pp. 1498-1503. - R. Rajagopal, M. Wainwright, and P. Varaiya, "Universal quantile estimation with feedback in the communication-constrained setting," in
*Proc. 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT 2006)*, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2006, pp. 836-840. - S. Coleri Ergen and P. Varaiya, "Optimal placement of relay nodes for energy efficiency in sensor networks," in
*Proc. 2006 IEEE Intl. Conf. on Communications (ICC '06)*, Vol. 8, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2006, pp. 3473-3479. - S. Coleri Ergen and P. Varaiya, "Effects of A-D conversion nonidealities on distributed sampling in dense sensor networks," in
*Proc. 5th Intl. Conf. on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2006)*, New York, NY: The Association for Computing Machinery, Inc., 2006, pp. 202-209. - M. Ergen, S. Coleri Ergen, and P. Varaiya, "Throughput performance of a wireless VoIP model with packet aggregation in IEEE 802.11," in
*Proc. 2006 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conf. (WCNC '06)*, Vol. 4, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2006, pp. 2235-2239. - S. Coleri Ergen, M. Ergen, and P. Varaiya, "Estimating network internal link loss behavior from end-to-end multi-cast measurements," in
*Proc. 2006 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conf. (WCNC '06)*, Vol. 4, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2006, pp. 2335-2341. - Z. Jia, R. Gupta, J. Walrand, and P. Varaiya, "Bandwidth guaranteed routing for ad-hoc networks with interference consideration," in
*Proc. 10th IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications*, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2005, pp. 3-9. - M. Ergen and P. Varaiya, "Throughput formulation and WLAN optimization in mixed data rates for IEEE 802.11 DCF mode," in
*Proc.2004 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. Workshops (GLOBECOM '04)*, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2004, pp. 266-269. - J. Kwon, B. Dundar, and P. Varaiya, "Hybrid algorithm for indoor positioning using wireless LAN," in
*Proc. 2004 IEEE 60th Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC2004-Fall): Wireless Technologies for Global Security*, Vol. 7, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2004, pp. 4625-4629. - M. Ergen, S. Coleri, B. Dundar, R. Jain, A. Puri, and P. Varaiya, "Application of GPS to mobile IP and routing in wireless networks," in
*Proc. 2002 IEEE 56th Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC2002-Fall)*, Vol. 2, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2002, pp. 1115-1119. - D. Lee, A. Puri, P. Varaiya, R. Sengupta, R. Attias, and S. Tripakis, "A wireless token ring protocol for ad-hoc networks," in
*Proc. 2002 IEEE Aerospace Conf.*, Vol. 3, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2002, pp. 1219-1228. - T. Simsek, P. Varaiya, and J. B. de Sousa, "Communication and control of distributed hybrid systems," in
*Proc. 2001 American Control Conf.*, Vol. 6, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2001, pp. 4968-4983. - S. S. Sastry, C. A. Desoer, and P. Varaiya, "Jump behavior of circuits and systems (Invited Paper)," in
*Proc. 20th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control (CDC '81) including the Symp. on Adaptive Processes*, Vol. 3, New York, NY: IEEE, 1981, pp. 1043-1047. - S. S. Sastry, C. A. Desoer, and P. Varaiya, "Jump behavior of circuits and systems," in
*Proc. 24th Midwest Symp. on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS 1981)*, S. Karni, Ed., North Hollywood, CA: Western Periodicals, 1981, pp. 539-543. - A. Arapostathis, S. S. Sastry, and P. Varaiya, "On the solutions of the load flow equation in power systems," in
*Proc. 19th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control including the Symp. on Adaptive Processes*, Vol. 1, New York, NY: IEEE, 1980, pp. 152-153. - A. Arapostathis, S. S. Sastry, and P. Varaiya, "Bifurcation analysis of the load flow equations (Invited Paper)," in
*Proc. 19th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control including the Symp. on Adaptive Processes*, Vol. 2, New York, NY: IEEE, 1980, pp. 641-644.

## Technical Reports

- R. Bajwa and P. Varaiya, "Weigh-In-Motion System Using a MEMS Accelerometer," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/EECS-2009-127, Sep. 2009. [abstract]
- A. A. Kurzhanskiy and P. Varaiya, "Ellipsoidal Toolbox," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/EECS-2006-46, May 2006. [abstract]
- Z. Jia, R. Gupta, J. Walrand, and P. Varaiya, "Bandwidth Guaranteed Routing for Ad Hoc etworks with Interference Consideration," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M04/43, 2004.
- Y. Xia, H. W. So, R. H. La, V. Anantharam, S. McCanne, D. Tse, J. Walrand, and P. Varaiya, "The WebTP Architecture and Algorithms," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M00/53, 2000.
- Y. Xia, H. W. So, R. H. La, V. Anantharam, S. McCanne, D. Tse, J. Walrand, and P. Varaiya, "The Framework of User-Centric Optimization in Web-Based Applications," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M00/52, 2000.
- T. A. Henzinger, P. Kopke, A. Puri, and P. Varaiya, "What's Decidable About Hybrid Automata," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M98/22, 1998.
- J. Dauneau and P. Varaiya, "Multimedia: Data Structures, Documents," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M92/31, 1992.
- T. Gedra and P. Varaiya, "Markets and Pricing for Interruptible Electric Power," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M91/11, 1991.
- C. Tan and P. Varaiya, "A Model for Pricing Interruptible Electric Power Service," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M91/10, 1991.
- C. Tan, T. Ishikida, and P. Varaiya, "Design of Interruptible Electric Power Service Contracts with Stochastic Demand," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M91/9, 1991.
- C. Tan and P. Varaiya, "Interruptible Electric Power Service Contracts," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M90/108, 1990.
- P. Varaiya, F. F. Wu, and H. Chiang, "Bifurcation and Chaos in Power Systems: A Survey," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M90/98, 1990.
- R. Cieslak, C. Desclaux, A. Fawaz, and P. Varaiya, "Supervisory Control of Discrete Event Processes with Partial Observations," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M86/63, 1986.
- V. Anantharam, P. Varaiya, and J. Walrand, "Asymptotically Efficient Allocation Rules for the Multiarmed Bandit Problem with Multiple Plays Part I: I.I.D. Rewards, Part II: Markovian Rewards," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M86/62, 1986.
- P. Varaiya, F. F. Wu, and R. Chen, "Direct Methods for Transient Stability Analysis of Power Systems: Recent Results," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M84/72, 1984.
- R. Weber, P. Varaiya, and J. Walrand, "Scheduling Jobs with Stochastically Ordered Processing Times on Parallel Machines to Minimize Expected Flowtime," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M84/57, 1984.
- N. Tsolas, A. Arapostathis, and P. Varaiya, "A Structure Preserving Energy Function for Power System Transient Stability Analysis," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M84/1, 1984.
- C. Buyukkoc, P. Varaiya, and J. Walrand, "Extensions of the Multi-Armed Bandit Problem," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M83/14, 1983.
- F. Abdel Salam, J. Marsden, and P. Varaiya, "Arnold Diffusion in Swing Equations of Power Systems," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M83/13, 1983.
- E. Abed and P. Varaiya, "Nonlinear Oscillations in Power Systems," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M83/4, 1983.
- R. K. Boel, P. Varaiya, and E. Wong, "Martingales on Jump Processes (Part II)," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M409, Dec. 1973.
- R. K. Boel, P. Varaiya, and E. Wong, "Martingales on Jump Processes (Part I)," EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M407, Sep. 1973.

## Patents

- R. Bajwa, R. Rajagopal, R. Kavaler, and P. Varaiya, "In-pavement wireless vibration sensor nodes, networks and systems," U.S. Patent 8,990,032. March 2015. [abstract]
- R. Kavaler, K. Kwong, R. Rajagopal, and P. Varaiya, "Method and apparatus generating and/or using estimates of arterial vehicular movement," U.S. Patent 8,989,996. March 2015. [abstract]
- K. Kwong, R. Kavaler, R. Rajagopal, and P. Varaiya, "Method and apparatus matching incoming to outgoing vehicle signatures to estimate arterial vehicular movement," U.S. Patent 8,428,857. April 2013. [abstract]
- K. Kwong, R. Kavaler, P. Varaiya, and R. Rajagopal, "Method and apparatus generating estimates vehicular movement involving multiple input-output roadway nodes," U.S. Patent 8,396,650. March 2013. [abstract]
- P. Varaiya and C. E. Sinem, "Minimizing power consumption in a wireless system for a sensor networks using time slots for nodes," U.S. Patent 7,738,413. June 2010. [abstract]
- R. Jain, C. Kaskiris, P. Varaiya, J. Shu, R. Rajagopal, and N. S. Pillai, "System and method for conducting combinatorial exchanges," U.S. Patent 7,627,510. Dec. 2009. [abstract]
- R. Jain, C. Kaskiris, P. Varaiya, J. Shu, R. Rajagopal, and N. S. Pillai, "System and method for conducting combinatorial exchanges," U.S. Patent Application. March 2006.
- P. Varaiya and S. Coleri Ergen, "Power efficient wireless system for sensor network," U.S. Patent Application. Nov. 2004.