TEMPEST solves Maxwell's equations using a time-domain finite-difference algorithm, where the electric and magnetic field nodes are spatially and temporally staggered over a three-dimensional cross-section of the topography of interest. TEMPEST is available in four versions (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0). Versions 1.0 to 3.0 are implemented on a single-instruction multiple-data parallel architecture called the connection machine (CM); version 4.0 runs on a single-CPU machine. The simulation domain may represent periodic or symmetric topography. The algorithm is capable of simulating problems such as scattering from asymmetrical alignment marks, transmission through phase-shifting masks, and effects of line-edge profiles in metrology, as well as dynamic bleaching of photoresist over arbitrary non-planar, and inhomogeneous wafer topographies.
In general, TEMPEST simulations can be placed into two categories: lithography, which involves dynamic changes during exposure, and imaging and scattering analysis. Two-dimensional plots, three-dimensional plots, contour plots, and/or density plots of the field amplitude, steady-state field, transient field, and photoactive compound (PAC) concentration in any region of the simulation domain can be generated using the included PLOTMTV package. The release also contains several auxiliary programs for data manipulation as well as the simulation program SPLAT, which synthesizes aerial images of structures based on Hopkin's approach.
In version 4.0, three-dimensional problems can be simulated on single-CPU machines such as a workstation and even a personal computer running the Linux operating system. In addition, there are several changes that facilitate the ease of use of the program.
Documentation Included with the Tape:
- A. Wong, TEMPEST Version 4.0 User's Guide (UCB/ERL M95/14, March 1995). Available separately for $5.00
Additional Documentation Available:
- A. Wong, "Rigorous Three-Dimensional Time-Domain Finite-Difference Electromagnetic Simulation," Ph.D. thesis (UCB/ERL M94/69, September 1994) $5.00.
- A. Wong, "Two-Dimensional Electromagnetic Simulation of Topography Scattering and Diffraction for Optical Lithography," M.S. thesis (UCB/ERL M92/115, October 1992) $5.00.
- K. H. Tadros, "Investigation of Optical Phenomena in Photolithography and Optical Metrology Using Massively Parallel Simulation," M.S. thesis (UCB/ERL M91/72, August 1991) $11.00.